Masana kimiyyar Ingilishi sun kirkiro enzyme wanda zai iya ciyar da filastik

matsalolin filastik

Wasu shekarun da suka gabata kuma kwatsam ba zato ba tsammani, wasu gungun masana kimiyya, yayin binciken abin da ke cikin tsohuwar tsohuwar masana'antar sarrafa kayan Japan, sun gano, kwata-kwata ba zato ba tsammani, cewa, bayan duk wadannan ragowar sun kasance shekaru masu yawa a cikin kasar iri daya. , yanayi ya ƙirƙiri wani nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta waɗanda ke ciyar da filastik.

Wannan labarin ya fito fili ne a karshen shekarar 2016, lokacin da kowa yayi farin ciki sosai saboda, kamar yadda muka fada, kwatsam mun gano abin da zai iya zama mafita ga ɗayan matsalolin da ke fuskantar mutane kamar yadda gurbatawa da sake amfani da robobi. Kamar yadda kuke gani, mafita, kuma, an ba mu ta ɗabi'a a cikin nau'in kwayan cuta wanda ya canza zuwa ciyar da filastik wanda ya mamaye mazaunin sa.

filastik

An sadaukar da awanni da yawa don bincika wannan kwayar, aikin da ke ci gaba don ba da mafita mafi haske da inganci.

Ta yaya zai kasance in ba haka ba, da yawa sun kasance masana kimiyya waɗanda ke sha'awar wannan sabon nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta kuma, bayan duk wannan lokacin, da alama ƙungiyar ta ƙungiyar ce Jami'ar Portsmouth a Burtaniya karkashin jagorancin masanin kimiyyar halittu John mcgeehan wanda ya sami sakamako mafi kyawu, kamar yadda zai gudanar da inganta enzyme, a cewar waɗanda ke da alhakin aikin a cikin hanyar haɗari kwata-kwata, wanda ke iya narke filastik ɗin ta hanyar da ta fi sauri.

Ba tare da wata shakka ba, kamar yadda masana kimiyya da kansu suka bayyana, muna fuskantar wata muhimmiyar mafita ga babbar matsalar da ke da alaƙa da robobi da duk 'yan Adam suke da shi a yau. A cikin kalmomin masanin ilimin halitta da kansa da kuma daraktan wannan aikin John mcgeehan:

Sau da yawa dama tana taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin binciken kimiyya na asali, kuma bincikenmu a nan ba banda bane. Wannan binciken da ba zato ba tsammani ya nuna cewa akwai wuri don kara inganta waɗannan enzymes, yana kusantar da mu kusa da hanyar sake amfani da sake amfani da dutsen da ke taɓarɓarewar robobi.

kwalabe

Ofungiyar masu binciken sun gudanar da haɓaka ƙananan enzyme mai ƙarfi da inganci

Daɗa ɗan zurfafawa cikin binciken da ƙungiyar John McGeehan ta gudanar, a bayyane kuma yayin binciken tsarin cikin Ideonella sakaiensis, wannan shine yadda a lokacinda Japan microbe mai iya ciyar da filastik yayi baftisma, suka gano gaba daya ba zato ba tsammani kuma tsarin mutant wanda ya ba shi damar lalata robobin PET, wanda aka fi sani da filastik na polyethylene terephthalate.

Matsalar wannan karamin microbe shine, kodayake yana iya cin roba, gaskiyar magana ita ce ba yayi sauri ba, wani abu da yake matsala, musamman idan muna son amfani da su don kawar da babban gurɓataccen filastik da Duniya ke da shi. A wannan gaba, ambaci cewa muna magana ne game da microbe wanda yakamata ya kasance mai nauyin cin ƙasa da dubban biliyoyin tan na shara wanda yau ke tarawa a cikin shara shara kuma a ƙarshe, a ƙare da jefa su cikin teku.

Godiya ga gaskiyar cewa masana kimiyya sun sami damar ganowa da keɓance tsarin maye gurbi na ƙirar Japan, an ƙirƙiri enzyme, ana yi masa baftisma kamar PETase, wanda ke bashi damar yin tasiri sosai wajen fasa filastik. Don bincika ingancin PETase a matakin kwayar halitta, masu binciken aikin sun yanke shawarar amfani da rayukan-X don samar da ƙirar ƙuduri mai girma mai girman gaske. Tare da wannan samfurin a hannunka, sun sami nasarar gano yadda PETase zasu iya ɗauka da ƙasƙantar da robobi kuma, menene mafi kyau, yadda za'a inganta wannan aikin. Halartar kalmomin mutum John mcgeehan:

Bayan awanni 96 kawai, ana iya gani a sarari ta hanyar microscope na lantarki cewa PET yana kaskantar da PET, kuma wannan gwajin yana amfani da misalai na gaske game da abin da ke cikin tekuna da wuraren shara.

Samun damar ganin ayyukan ciki na wannan masanan sunadarai sun bamu tsarin yadda zamu tsara enzyme mai sauri da inganci.

Abin mamaki, mun gano cewa rikodin PETase ya fi ƙarfin ƙirar microbe a cikin ƙasƙantar da PET. Fahimtar yadda PET ke ɗaure a rukunin yanar gizan yanar gizo na PETase ta amfani da kayan aikin lissafi ya taimaka wajen haɓaka dalilan wannan kyakkyawan aikin. Idan aka ba da waɗannan sakamakon, a bayyane yake cewa har yanzu akwai gagarumar damar haɓaka kasuwancin ku.


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