Menene yawan lissafi kuma ina zai iya kai mu?

ƙididdigar adadi

A cikin watannin da suka gabata, an faɗi abubuwa da yawa game da su ƙididdigar adadi, wata sabuwar fasahar da masana da yawa ba sa jinkirin sanyawa a zaman makomar komputa, duk da cewa za mu iya cewa ba tare da tsoron yin kuskure ba cewa har yanzu tana cikin fara, wato, dole ne mu ci gaba da keɓe lokaci mai yawa don bincike da haɓakawa, ƙera sababbin samfura da gwaje-gwajen gwaje-gwaje har sai da gaske zamu iya amfani da shi a cikin wasu nau'ikan yanayin.

Duk da wannan, kodayake har yanzu da sauran aiki a gaba, gaskiyar ita ce cewa akwai manyan kamfanonin fasaha da yawa da ke ƙoƙarin gano hanya mafi kyau don farawa yi amfani da shi ga duk abin da muka sani a yau game da ƙididdigar jimla. A matsayin cikakken bayani, gaya muku cewa daga cikin manyan kamfanonin da suke aiki a wannan fagen mun sami IBM, Microsoft ko Google, na biyun kuma duk da yadda yake da rikitarwa don sanin aikin wannan fasahar yanzu, ya sanar yan watannin baya da suka gabata samfuri, wanda aka yi wa lakabi da D-Wave 2X, ya kasance 100 sau sauri fiye da al'ada kwamfuta.

Menene yawan lissafi?

Antididdigar ƙididdiga sabon fasaha ne wanda ake kira, kamar yadda muka ce, ya zama nan gaba na sarrafa kwamfuta. Abu na farko da yafi jan hankali game da shi shine, yayin da muke aiki tare da abin da ake kira ragowa, ƙaramar sashin bayanai wanda zai iya samun ƙima biyu kawai (sifili ko ɗaya) a cikin wannan sabuwar fasahar mai rikitarwa, muna aiki akan abin da ake kira qubits inda ba wai kawai za a iya samun sifili ko guda ɗaya ba, amma kuma zai iya yiwuwa akwai juzu'i ko haɗuwa duka.

Don bayyana wannan kaɗan mafi kyau, dole ne mu zana kan kimiyyar lissafi kuma musamman, kamar yadda wasu masana ke bayani, da ka'idar kiyaye makamashi, wanda tabbas zai yi kama da ku kuma wannan ya bayyana cewa ana kiyaye makamashin tsarin keɓewa koyaushe. Abin da wannan ƙa'idar ke gaya mana, alal misali, shi ne cewa idan har za mu iya ƙirƙirar tsarin da za mu iya sanya gilashi ɗaya kawai, babu wata jayayya a ciki, kuma yana jujjuyawa da misalin kusan 5 a kowane dakika, saboda babu tasirin waje, koyaushe zai juya a daidai wannan saurin.

D-Waya guntu

A ci gaba da misalin, yi tunanin cewa a wani lokaci, gilashinmu ya kasu kashi biyu. Har yanzu babu wani tasiri daga waje, don haka ya kamata a kiyaye wannan saurin juyawar. Ta wannan hanyar, idan ɗayan tabarau biyu ta ci gaba da juyawa a juya 5 a kowane dakika, ɗayan ba zai iya juyawa ba tun da juyi zai bayyana ba tare da wani wuri ba, wani abu da ilimin kimiyyar lissafi ya ce ba zai iya faruwa ba. Ainihin wannan ƙa'idar tana gaya mana cewa idan muka san saurin juyawar ɗayan tabarau, kai tsaye zaku san wanene ɗayan tunda yana haɗe.

Kodayake wataƙila misalin ba shi da kyau sosai, ina fata kun fahimce shi, yana taimaka mana mu san cewa, duk da cewa jihohin ƙubits na iya zama da yawa, gaskiyar ita ce Sanin halin wani yana taimaka mana sanin ainihin halin wani, duk da haka yana iya zama.

Yanzu, wannan na iya zama mai rikitarwa kaɗan tunda, a cikin misalin da muka bayar, mun sani cewa ɗayan jirgi da ake magana yana da takamaiman saurin juyawa da alkibla, wani abu da a duniyar jimla ba haka yake ba. Raka'a biyu a cikin wannan duniyar na iya samun saurin gudu da kwatancen juyawa, abin da ya faru shi ne, a lokacin da muke auna saurin, muna gyara alkiblar.

Kwararrun kimiyyar lissafi na iya samun rikitarwa da yawa tare da jihar zoba, amma gaskiyar ita ce matakin na na kimiyyar lissafi kadan kadan ne, kodayake ina tsammanin hakan, duk da cewa idan kai masanin kimiyyar lissafi ne za ka iya samun wani abu mara kyau, ina ganin batun ya kasance a bayyane ya ci gaba da yawan kimiyyar lissafi.

Da zarar mun magance ka'idar jiki na ɗan lokaci, lokaci yayi da za a ci gaba da ƙididdigar jimla da kwubits zuwa fahimci dalilin da yasa wannan fasaha zata iya zama mai karfin gaske. Ka yi tunanin cewa muna da qubits, kamar yadda muka ambata a baya, ainihin gaskiyar, alal misali, juya kashi ɗaya bisa huɗu na juyawa zai haifar da jujjuyawarta a tsaye da kuma kwance, wanda ya ba mu sakamakon hakan, tare da aikin shigar da abubuwa , muna samun sakamako biyu.

Idan muka kara rikitarwa matsalar ta hanyar kara sabon qubit a lissafin, muna da cewa kowannensu yana da jihohi da yawa, nata na tsaye da na kwance da na kwance da na kwance dayan qubit din, yanzu, ta hanyar juya daya daga cikinsu kwata kwata juzu'i hudu ana canzawa, wanda ke nufin cewa, tare da aikin shigarwa, ana iya aiwatar da ayyuka huɗu.

Ta hanyar ƙara sabbin ƙubit zuwa aikin, zai iya haɓaka ƙwarai dangane da ayyukan da ake aiwatarwa tare da aiwatar da shigarwa ɗaya kawai. Ka yi tunanin cewa muna da tsari inda muke da n qubits inda n shine lambar da kuka zaɓa a bazuwar, kamar yadda muka yi tsokaci a baya, ƙubit yana adana bayanai game da tsayuwarsa a tsaye da kuma kwance da kuma na ƙwubutun tsarin, don haka tare da canjin da zamu iya zuwa yi 2 daga ayyukan.

Barin duk wannan ka'idar a gefe kaɗan kuma sanya duka wannan a aikace, yi tunanin cewa zaku iya ƙirƙirar maɓallin WPA2-PSK don siginar WiFi ɗin ku, wannan maɓallin an ƙirƙira shi gaba ɗaya ba tare da wata kalma ta gaske ba kuma babu wani shiri a duniya da zai iya aiwatarwa hare-haren ƙamus na iya san shi. A bayyane kuma bisa ga masana, ta amfani da kalmar wucewa ta haruffa 10, kwamfuta ta al'ada na iya ɗauka shekaru da yawa suna aiwatar da hare-hare na zalunci. Idan wannan kwamfutar, maimakon zama kayan aiki na al'ada, tana amfani da ƙididdigar jimla, zai ɗauki sakan da yawa a cikin neman mafita.

Ina lissafin jimla yake daukar mu?

Gaskiyar ita ce a halin yanzu babu wanda ya san abin da ya kamata mu yi tsammani daga fasaha a matsayin sabon abu kamar wannan, duk da haka, watakila hanya mafi kyau don fahimtar inda muke a yau ita ce ƙoƙarin magana game da duk labaran da manyan kamfanonin fasaha ke da su wanda aka gabatar a cikin 'yan watannin nan.Kungiyoyin masu bincike da ke aiki ba tare da gajiyawa ba a kan ci gaba da kuma juyin halittar lissafi masu yawa a duka kayan aiki da kuma matakan software.

Dangane da ayyukan kwanan nan akan wane Google yayi sharhi akan wani sabon abu, a wannan fagen mun gano cewa a zahiri suna fatan zama kamfani mai karfin aiki dangane da ƙididdigar jimla a cikin gajeren lokaci. Wannan shine batun da suke fatan kaiwa ga wannan matakin farko a wannan shekara ta 2017 saboda haɓakar D-Wave mai ban sha'awa, wanda ya karɓi sabon qubit shida.

guntu

Idan muka ci gaba da sabon abu da samarin suka wallafa daga Google, zamu ga cewa wannan matakin farko ne kawai tunda, a bayyane yake, sun sami nasarar haɓaka sabon tsarin ƙera masana'antu wanda zai basu damar, ko kuma aƙalla abin da John Martinis ya bayyana kenan ., shugaban rukunin bincike na Google akan yawan lissafi, ya fi sauri sauri. Wannan yana basu damar yin aiki a yau akan sabbin kayan kwalliyar tsakanin qubits 30 zuwa 50.

A gefe guda, Google baya manta cewa komai yawan ƙarfin hardware da zaku iya samu, kuna buƙatar a software wannan na iya kasancewa har zuwa aiki kuma, saboda ƙwarewar irin wannan tsarin, a halin yanzu ba mu san tabbataccen yadda za a haɓaka yaren da ke iya cin gajiyar duk abubuwan da ke tattare da wannan fasaha ba kodayake, kaɗan kaɗan, ana kuma samun nasarar ɗaukar sabbin matakai a cikin wannan filin da zai iya haifar da sakamako na musamman kuma a yi amfani da shi a cikin batutuwa kamar tsaro, ɓoye hoto ko kuma fasahar kere kere.

Barin Google gefe dole ne mu ci gaba da magana game da shi IBM, kamfani wanda wataƙila baya yawan shiga yaƙi tare da ci gaban sa kuma hakan na iya zama kamar 'hanyarsu ce' amma hakan yana samun ci gaba ƙwarai da gaske godiya, misali, ga ra'ayin samun kowane irin masu haɓaka hannu. Nasa daidai ne ra'ayin ƙirƙirar shafin yanar gizo inda duk wani mai amfani da shi zai iya sanya ƙubit dinsa na ƙubit biyar a gwaji.

Game da Microsoft, 'yan watannin da suka gabata mun sami labarin cewa har yanzu suna aiki a kan hanyarsu ta musamman don fahimtar lissafi mai yawa, suna yin caca a kan wata hanya daban da ta wadanda abokan hamayya suka dauka a wannan tseren na daban kamar Google ko IBM. Babban ra'ayin shi ne yin aiki tare da laididdigar ƙididdigar jimla. Don haɓaka wannan ra'ayin, kamfanin ya hayar da mashahuri masu bincike don haɓaka abin da aka sani da topological qubits, wani tsarin wanda yake dogara ne akan cukurkudaddun abubuwa da ake kira anyones wanda bisa ga kimiyyar lissafi ya wanzu ne a girma biyu kawai.

A ƙarshe zan so in kawo ƙarshen hangen nesan da suke da shi Intel, inda suke yin fare tsaye kai tsaye kan amfani da transistors na silicon shima don wannan sabon fasahar ko aikin mai ban sha'awa wanda aka haɓaka kuma aka aiwatar tare. Jami'ar Bristol da Kamfanin NTT Daga ciki ne suka sami nasarar kirkirar photonic chip wanda zai iya zama ginshiƙan hada-hada da yawa a cikin sarrafa lissafi. A matsayin cikakken bayani, gaya muku cewa bisa ga waɗanda ke kula da su, godiya ga amfani da wannan sabon guntu, ayyukan da har zuwa yanzu sun ɗauki shekara guda ana iya aiwatar da su a cikin hoursan awanni kaɗan, wani abu da ke nuna matsayin mawuyacin hali iri ɗaya da musamman ma ban tsoro ikonta.

Duk da cewa har yanzu ana ci gaba da aiki da karami, inganta tsari da sauran fannoni don cimmawa, shekara zuwa shekara, don samun damar bunkasa da kuma samar da kwamfutoci masu karfi, gaskiyar ita ce nan gaba shine a kawo wannan fasahar zuwa duk gidaje. Abun jira a gani idan Google da gaske yana iya ƙirƙirar guntu 50-ƙubit a ƙarshen wannan shekarar, kodayake dole ne mu gane cewa wannan rukunin kamfanonin suna masana a yin gobe abin da muke tunanin ba zai yiwu ba a yau.


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