Kodi makompyuta a quantum amagwira ntchito bwanji?

Tonse tidamvapo mawu makompyuta a quantum nthawi ina, koma kawirikawiri ndi ochepa omwe amadziwa tanthauzo lake. Kwa ambiri, chinthu choyamba chomwe chimabwera m'maganizo anu ndi kompyuta yamphamvu kwambiri, yokhoza kuchita ntchito iliyonse koma mwachangu kwambiri, koma si kompyuta yosavuta yamphamvu kwambiri, Ndiposa pamenepo.

Ngakhale Awa ndimakina omwe anthu wamba sangathe kuwapeza, zimapanga chidwi chambiri. Munkhaniyi tifotokoza kuti kompyuta ya quantum ndi yotani komanso imagwiritsidwa ntchito bwanji komanso ndi ziti zomwe mphamvu zake zimayendera.

Kodi kompyuta yotani?

Makompyuta ambiri ndi makina akuluakulu omwe amagwiritsa ntchito njira zina zamagetsi kuti akwaniritse mphamvu zamagetsi. Makompyuta a Quantum amatha kutsatira phula pakompyuta iliyonse yazikhalidwe. China chake chomwe chimadziwika kuti ukulu wapamwamba.

Kodi izi zikutanthauza kuti tonse tidzatha kukhala ndi makompyuta ochuluka kunyumba kuti tizitha kugwiritsa ntchito intaneti kapena kusewera masewera apakanema? Ayi sichoncho. Makina achikale apitiliza kukhala yankho lachizolowezi pothetsera mavuto athu komanso popumira. Komanso ndalama zambiri.

Makompyuta a Quantum amalonjeza kuti alimbikitsanso magawo osiyanasiyana aukadaulo, monga sayansi, zamankhwala kapena majini. Makampani ena ayamba kale kuzigwiritsa ntchito popanga zinthu zatsopano, monga zopepuka zatsopano komanso zolimba kuti zisinthe mafuta.

kuchuluka

Kodi makompyuta a quantum amagwira ntchito bwanji?

Makina awa mphamvu zawo sizidalira zida wamba, monga yomwe titha kupeza pamakompyuta athu akunyumba, sizokhudza makadi azithunzi zazikulu ndi ma processor, zimapitilira izi, zochulukirapo komanso zovuta. Chinsinsi cha mphamvu yamakompyuta ochulukirapo chimakhala pakutha kwake kupanga ndikupanga ma bits a quantum kapena mayira.

Qubit ndi chiyani?

Makompyuta achikhalidwe amagwiritsa ntchito ma bits, megabytes, gigabits…. Mtsinje wamagetsi wamagetsi kapena wamagetsi oyimira omwe ndi maziro. Dziko lonse lapansi lochokera ku imelo, tsamba lawebusayiti kapena kanema yemwe timawona pa intaneti, ndizofunikira pazingwe zazitali ndi zina.

Makompyuta a Quantum amagwiritsa ntchito qubits, ma subatomic particles ngati ma elekitironi kapena ma photon. Njira yomwe makampani ena amakonda Google imadalira masekondi opitilira muyeso ozizira kuzizira kotsika kuposa malo akuya. Ena amakola maatomu amtundu wamagetsi pamagetsi amagetsi pachipinda chansalu. Pazochitika zonsezi cholinga chake ndikupatula ma qubit kukhala olamulidwa.

Ma Qubits ali ndi zinthu zina zapadera, zomwe zimapangitsa gulu la iwo kutha kupereka mphamvu zochulukirapo kuposa kuchuluka kofananira kwama binary. Chofunika kwambiri chimatchedwa superposition ndi quantum entanglement.

Kodi kuchuluka kwa kuchuluka kumakhala kotani?

Kuchulukanso kwa Quantum kumachitika mwachilengedwe, pomwe tinthu tating'onoting'ono timakhala ndi zigawo ziwiri kapena zingapo, monga zimachitikira ndi ma photon, omwe atha kukhala m'malo awiri osiyana nthawi imodzi, china chake chosaganizirika mdziko wamba.

Katunduyu amawonekeranso m'magawo ena monga ma elekitironi kapena ma neutroni, maatomu kapena ngakhale mamolekyulu ang'onoang'ono. Ulendowu watsogolera asayansi kudabwa kuti malire ali pati pakati pa dziko la quantum ndi zomwe timazitcha dziko lenileni, pomwe tinthu timalephera kukhala kambiri ndipo timatsata malamulo odziwika.

Chifukwa cha zodabwitsazi, makompyuta ochulukirapo okhala ndi ma qubit angapo olumikizana amatha kufika pazotsatira zambiri nthawi imodzi.

kuchuluka kwa tchipisi

Kuchuluka kwa kuchuluka

Mutha kupanga magulu awiri a "zotsekedwa", momwe onse amakhalira mofanana. Sinthani mawonekedwe am'modzi mwa ma qubit Zingasinthe wina ndi mzake m'njira yodziwikiratu, izi zimachitika ngakhale mutakhala kutali.

Sidziwika bwino momwe zingagwiritsire ntchito kuchuluka kwa kuchuluka. China chake chomwe chidatha kusokoneza a Albert Einstein omwe, omwe angawafotokozere ngati "chinthu chowopsa patali". Kulowetsedwa ndikofunikira kuti makompyuta ochulukirapo akhale ndi mphamvu zazikulu. Mu kompyuta yanthawi zonse, kuwirikiza kawiri kuchuluka kwa mabatani kumawonjezera mphamvu yake yokonza. Pankhani yamakompyuta ochulukirapo, kuwonjezera ma qubit owonjezera kumabweretsa kuwonjezeka kwakukulu pamphamvu yake.

Makinawa amapezerapo mwayi pa ma qubit omwe amapezeka mu unyolo wamtundu wambiri kuti agwire ntchito. Kutha kwa makina kufulumizitsa kuwerengera ndi ma algorithms opangidwa mwapadera ndi chifukwa chake amapangitsa chisangalalo chochuluka.

Koma sizinthu zonse zomwe zimakhala zapadera zikafika pamakompyuta ochulukirapo, chifukwa amatha kutengera zolakwika, chifukwa chosagwirizana pakompyuta.

Kusasinthasintha

Ichi ndi chodabwitsa chomwe chimayambitsa kuchuluka kwazinthu kuwonongeka ndipo pamapeto pake zimasowa chifukwa chothandizana ndi ma qubit ndi malo awo, popeza kuchuluka kwawo kumakhala kofooka kwambiri. Kugwedezeka pang'ono kapena kusintha kwa kutentha kumatha kupangitsa kuti izi zizichitika mosamalitsa ntchitoyi ithe. Pachifukwa ichi, ma qubit nthawi zambiri amasungidwa m'mafiriji ndi zipinda zopumira m'malo otentha kwambiri.

Makompyuta a Google ochuluka

Google sanafune kusiyidwa pankhani yaukadaulo wa quantum, chimphona cha North America apanga kompyuta yochulukirapo yomwe imatha kuwerengetsera masekondi 200, yomwe mu pc yayikulu ikadatenga zaka zikwi khumi. Ichi ndichifukwa chake imalengeza kuti makompyuta ochuluka ndiye tsogolo lawo. Ngakhale mpikisano wake IBM sivomereza kwenikweni.

Ofufuza osalowerera mbali akuwonetsa kuti makompyuta a Google ochulukirapo amayenera kuwerengera manambala omwe atha kukhala opambana ngati zida zonse zamakompyuta zikugwira ntchito bwino.

Purezidenti wa google ndi wasayansi

Google sakukonzekera kutsalira pa mpikisanowu ndipo motero akulonjeza kuti adzayika ndalama zambiri muukadaulo uwu. Pankhani ya Google, titha kuganiza kuti izi zidzakhala choncho, ngakhale IMB sichifuna kungokhala osachita chilichonse chifukwa zinthu zake zambiri zikugwiritsidwa ntchito pokonza ukadaulo uwu. Nthawi idzadziwitsa ngati Google yokha itha kukhala ndi mphamvu zochulukirapo kapena ngati ingafune kulowa nawo mpikisano wawo.

Ndiukadaulo womwe zitha kutithandiza tonse, pakupanga mankhwala omwe amatha kuchiritsa matenda osachiritsika pakadali pano.


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