CRISPR, ukadaulo wodula ndikusintha momwe DNA imagwirira ntchito

CRISPR

Ngati muwerenga pafupipafupi zaukadaulo komanso nkhani zonse zomwe zikufotokozedwazo, zowonadi m'mabuku mukadamvapo kena kake CRISPR ukadaulo womwe umatchedwa kuti usinthe dziko lapansi chifukwa cha kuti, mwachidule, umapatsa munthu ufulu womwe takhala tikufuna kwa zaka zambiri, chinthu chophweka monga kutha kudula ndikusintha maunyolo a DNA mwakufuna kwathu, ndi zonse zomwe zikutanthauza.

M'nkhaniyi ndikungofuna kuti tikomane lero kuti tikambirane za mutu watsopanowu, ukadaulo womwe wapezeka ndi wachichepere waku Alicante ndikuti, malinga ndi akatswiri pantchitoyi, watsegula chabe msika watsopano wamtengo wapatali pafupifupi madola mamiliyoni 46.000. Mwina chifukwa cha izi, sizosadabwitsa kuti makampani akulu kwambiri okhudzana ndi zamankhwala atenga nawo gawo kwambiri kuposa izi, monga wopezapo wanena nthawi zina, CRISPR imatipatsa chiyembekezo cha dziko labwino kwambiri.

CRISPR, mbiri yaukadaulo wopezeka ku Spain

Tikamayankhula za CRISPR tiyenera kunena za wopezayo, Francis Mojica, wofufuza yemwe adabadwira m'tawuni yapafupi kwambiri ndi mzinda wa Elche yemwe adayamba kugwira nawo ntchitoyi pakukula kwa malingaliro ake a udokotala pamalingaliro a mphunzitsi wake ku 1989.

Panthawiyi m'moyo wake, Francis Mojica wachichepere adayamba kuphunzira mabakiteriya ang'onoang'ono omwe amalekerera kwambiri mchere omwe adapeza m'malo okhala mchere, makamaka Haloferx mediterranei. Kale mkati 1993 adafalitsa zomaliza zake zoyambirira pomwe tikupeza zolemba zofunikira kwambiri pantchito yake yomaliza popeza Mojica anali 'ndapeza mayendedwe obwereza mu genome ake omwe amayenera kukwaniritsa ntchito yofunikira ya selo koma sindinaganizepo chinthu chachikulu chotero'.

Pakadali pano, asayansi ambiri akuti pali ntchito kale izi zisanachitike pomwe kupezeka kwa zotsatirazi kunapezeka, ngakhale chowonadi, monga kwasonyezedwera, ndikuti Francis Mojica anali choyamba kuzizindikira, kuyesa, komanso kuzitchula. Tsoka ilo, ndipo ngakhale izi zidadziwika kuti zidalipo, njira yowatchulira idapezeke.

Tiyenera kudumpha tsopano mpaka chaka 2000 kuti tipeze tokha pamaso pa Francis Mojica yemwe anangogwira ntchito yopanga CRISPR. Munthawi imeneyi komanso zaka zotsatira, wofufuzirayo adapeza kuti pali zamoyo zambiri zomwe zikasinthidwa, zimafa. Pakadali pano wofufuzayo adaganiza zotcha tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ngati 'Zobwezeretsedwera pafupipafupi Palindormic Pobwerezakapena CRISPR zomwe m'Chisipanishi zingakhale zosavuta monga 'zophatikizika komanso zobwereza pafupipafupi palindromic', Kufotokozera za zomwe tizilombo timeneti tinali.

Pakadali pano ukadaulo unali ndi dzina ngakhale, zidatenga nthawi yayitali kwa Francis Mojica, kale mchilimwe cha 2003, itha kuzindikira magawo a vuris m'malo obwereza omwe, modabwitsa, adagwira ntchito ngati chitetezo cha mthupi. Kuyambira pano, ma laboratories ambiri akulu adayang'ana paukadaulo uwu ndikuyamba kugwira ntchito pamasa.

Palibe zochepera zaka khumi pambuyo pake, atalowa kale 2012, ndipamene Charpentier ndi Doudna amatha kuzindikira zinthu zochepa zomwe CRISPR ingagwiritsidwe ntchito kudula ndikusintha zingwe za DNA. Mwanjira imeneyi, mpaka lero, CRISPR imawerengedwa kuti ndiyotsogola kwambiri m'mbiri yonse.

genética

CRISPR ndi chiyani?

Payekha ndiyenera kuvomereza kuti sindinkafuna kulankhula za CRISPR osatchula nkhani yonse yomwe idapezeka ndikuti Francis Mojica amadziwika kuti ndi 'munthu', m'mawu a Eric lander, omwe palibe amene akuwanena koma omwe, pantchito yawo yokhayokha, athandiza kuti kusinthaku kukhale kotheka.

Kubwereranso pamutu womwe umatibweretsa pamodzi, ndikuuzeni kuti malinga ndi akatswiri CRISPR ndi mtundu wina wa chitetezo chamthupi chomwe ma prokaryotic cell ali nacho. Kwenikweni zomwe dongosololi limachita ndikuti, pozindikira chiwopsezo kuchokera ku kachilombo kalikonse, maselowa amatha kusintha mawonekedwe awo kuti akhale otetezedwa ndi mtunduwu.

Izi ndi zomwe CRISPR ikadakhala, malongosoledwe a momwe ma prokaryotic amayenera kudzitchinjiriza motsutsana ndi izi 'olowa'. Sayansi ikadziwa momwe ingagwiritsire ntchito motere, anthu atha kuchita zinthu zomwe sitingaganizire kuyambira pamenepo, malinga ndi zitsanzo zomwe zagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri, pogwiritsa ntchito njira ya RNA ngati chitsogozo, titha kutemera tizilombo tofunikira tofunikira pakugulitsa, kupanga masinthidwe amtundu wa anthu kuti athetse matenda oyipitsitsa omwe angavutike nawo ndikuchotsanso nyama zomwe zatha.

Zikutifikitsa kuti?

Doudna ndi Charpentier atazindikira, zatheka kuwonetsa, ndi ma laboratories a Broad Institute of MIT pankhaniyi, kuti kugwiritsa ntchito CRISPR imatha kugwira ntchito pachinthu chilichonse chamoyo chachikulu kuposa selo. Zitatha izi, nkhondo zingapo zalamulo padziko lonse lapansi zayamba zomwe ziyenera kuthetsedwa kuyambira pamenepo, njira yomwe mpaka pano imawonedwa ngati yothandiza kwambiri, yachuma komanso yolondola yomwe ikupezeka mpaka pano, ikhoza kukhala cholowa cha ochepa.

Inemwini ndiyenera kuvomereza kuti ndawerenga zambiri zaukadaulo uwu, zinthu zambiri zomwe ndazimvetsetsa chifukwa cha anthu omwe amadziwa kufotokoza bwino zinthu ndi ena, zolemba zambiri ndipo mwazinthu zina ndasochera, zomwe ine Sindikumvetsetsa kuti pali anthu ati, omwe atha kuthana ndi matenda amtundu uliwonse komanso kutukula mphamvu zathu monga anthu, kumenyera nkhondo kuti muwone yemwe ali ndi patent pazonsezi ndikuletsa kagwiritsidwe kake kulipira kwakukulu koti nditha kuigwiritsa ntchito.

CRISPR

Mavuto omwe angayambitsidwe chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito molakwika CRISPR

Monga tekinoloje yatsopano yonse, chowonadi ndichakuti kugwiritsa ntchito CRISPR imatha kubweretsa mavuto ambiri zomwe, pakadali pano, sitikudziwa. Mwa zina zomwe zapezeka pamalingaliro, monga momwe zalembedwera m'manyuzipepala angapo ofunikira padziko lonse lapansi, zikuwoneka kuti timapeza zomveka monga momwe zimakhalira, kusewera Mulungu kumatha kubweretsa kusintha mazana osafunikira komwe kumayambitsidwa ndi majini osinthidwa.

Nthawi iliyonse mtundu wina wa nkhani ukasindikizidwa, monga ndizomveka, umakhala ndi kafukufuku wofunikira kumbuyo kwawo ndipo panthawiyi omwe ali ndiudindo ndi gulu la asayansi opangidwa ndi mamembala a University of Columbia, University of Iowa ndi University of Stanford iwo omwe agwirapo ntchito ndi mbewa kuti, kudzera CRISPR, ayese 'achiritseni'khungu.

Mwachiwonekere komanso pantchito yake, ngakhale CRISPR ndi chida cholondola kwambiri, ofufuzawo anapeza kusintha kwina kulikonse mu genome, chinthu chomwe sichimayembekezeredwa motero kudabwitsidwa kudumpha. Makamaka, monga momwe adasindikizidwira mwalamulo, tikulankhula za zopitilira 1.500 zazing'ono ndi zoyikapo mazana ndi kuchotsedwa mosayembekezereka kwa majini.

Ngakhale zili choncho, asayansi sanataye njirayi yosinthira majini, koma vuto lenileni la zonsezi, malinga ndi iwoeni, ndi chiyani zochepa zomwe timadziwa momwe tingagwiritsire ntchito ukadaulo watsopano uwu. Ponena za mbewa, ngakhale zidapezeka kuti zasintha zazing'ono zonsezi, chowonadi ndichakuti onse ali athanzi molingana ndi njira zodziwika bwino za ziweto, ndiye kuti, tsopano kusinthaku sikunayambitse vuto lililonse m'zinyama.


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