Kodi makompyuta a quantum ndi ati ndipo angatitengere kuti?

kuchuluka kwa kompyuta

M'miyezi yapitayi, zambiri zanenedwa za kuchuluka kwa kompyuta, ukadaulo watsopano womwe akatswiri ambiri samazengereza kuwaika ngati tsogolo lamakompyuta, ngakhale titha kunena osawopa kulakwitsa kuti ikadali yaying'ono, ndiye kuti, tifunikirabe kupereka nthawi yambiri kufufuza ndi chitukuko, kupanga mitundu yatsopano yazoyeserera ndi zoyeserera zasayansi mpaka titazigwiritsa ntchito m'malo ena.

Ngakhale izi, ngakhale padakali ntchito yambiri yoti ichitike, chowonadi ndichakuti pali makampani ambiri opanga ukadaulo woyamba omwe akuyesera kupeza njira yabwino yoyambira tengani mwayi kuzinthu zonse zomwe timadziwa zamagetsi zamagetsi masiku ano. Monga mwatsatanetsatane, ndikuuzeni kuti pakati pa makampani akuluakulu omwe amagwira ntchitoyi timapeza IBM, Microsoft kapena Google, omalizirayi ngakhale kuti ndizovuta bwanji kudziwa momwe maluso awa agwirira ntchito, adalengeza miyezi ingapo yapitayo kuti ndi yatsopano choyimira, chotchedwa D-Wave 2X, inali 100 mofulumira kuposa kompyuta wamba.

Kodi quantum computing ndi chiyani?

Quantum computing ndi ukadaulo watsopano womwe umatchedwa, monga tidanenera, kukhala tsogolo la kompyuta. Chinthu choyamba chomwe chiri chodabwitsa kwambiri ndikuti, ngakhale tikugwira ntchito ndi zotchedwa bits, chidziwitso chochepa chomwe chingakhale ndi zinthu ziwiri zokha (zero kapena chimodzi) muukadaulo watsopanowu komanso wovuta, timagwira otchedwa mayira komwe sikungakhale zero kapena chimodzi, komanso ndizotheka kuti pali kulumikizana kapena kuphatikiza zonse ziwiri.

Kuti tifotokozere bwino izi, tiyenera kugwiritsa ntchito fizikiki makamaka, monga akatswiri ena amafotokozera, mfundo yosungira mphamvu, zomwe zidzamvekere ngati inu ndipo zomwe zikufotokozera kuti mphamvu yokhayokha nthawi zonse imasungidwa. Zomwe mfundoyi imatiuza, mwachitsanzo, ndikuti ngati tikadatha kupanga kachitidwe komwe titha kungoyika galasi limodzi, mulibe mkangano, ndipo imazungulira pafupifupi kasanu pamphindikati, chifukwa palibe mphamvu yakunja, imazungulira nthawi yomweyo.

Chipangizo cha D-Wave

Popitiliza ndi chitsanzocho, taganizirani kuti panthawi ina, magalasi athu agawika pakati. Palibe chisonkhezero chakunja, chifukwa chake kutembenuka uku kuyenera kusungidwa. Mwanjira iyi, ngati imodzi mwa magalasi awiriwa apitilizabe kutembenuka kasanu pamphindikati, inayo siyingasinthike popeza kutembenuka kukanakhala kuti sikukupezeka, zomwe fizikiki imati sizingachitike. Kwenikweni mfundo imeneyi imatiuza kuti ngati tidziwa kuthamanga kwa magalasi amodzi, mudzadziwa kuti ndi inayo chifukwa ndiyolumikizana.

Ngakhale mwina chitsanzocho sichabwino kwambiri, ndikhulupilira kuti mwamvetsetsa, zimatithandiza kudziwa kuti, ngakhale mayiko a qubits atha kukhala angapo, chowonadi ndichakuti Kudziwa momwe dziko limakhalira kumatithandiza kudziwa momwe zinthu zilili, ngakhale atakhala kutali bwanji.

Tsopano, izi zitha kukhala zovuta kwambiri popeza, mchitsanzo chomwe taperekachi, tikudziwa kuti imodzi mwa zombo zomwe zikufunsidwa zili ndi liwiro loyenda mozungulira, komwe dziko la quantum silili choncho ayi. mayunitsi awiri mdziko lino atha kukhala ndi ma liwiro angapo komanso mayendedwe azungulira, zomwe zimachitika ndikuti, panthawi yoyeza kuthamanga, timakonza njira.

Fizikiki ya quantum imatha kukhala yovuta kwambiri ndi boma likulumikizana, koma chowonadi ndichakuti gawo langa la fizikiki ndi locheperako, ngakhale ndikuganiza kuti, ngakhale mutakhala kuti mufizikiki mutha kupeza zovuta zina, ndikuganiza kuti lingaliro lakhala likuwonekeratu kuti lipitirire ndi kuchuluka kwa makompyuta.

Tikamalankhula zakuthupi kwakanthawi, ndi nthawi yoti mupitilize ndi kuchuluka kwa ma comput ndi ma qubits ku mvetsetsa chifukwa chake ukadaulo uwu ungakhale wamphamvu kwambiri. Ingoganizirani kuti tili ndi ma qubit, monga tanena kale, kungoti, kutembenuza kotala limodzi kungapangitse kusinthasintha kwake kopingasa ndi kopingasa, komwe kumatipatsa chifukwa chake, ndi ntchito yolowera , timapeza zotsatira ziwiri.

Ngati tithanso kuthana ndi vutoli powonjezerapo qubit yatsopano pa equation, tili ndi kuti iliyonse ili ndi mayiko angapo, oscillation yake yoyimirira komanso yopingasa komanso kusunthika kozungulira ndi kopingasa kwa qubit inayo, tsopano, potembenuza imodzi kotala kotembenuza Magawo anayi amasinthidwa, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti, ndi chochita cholowera, zochitika zinayi zitha kuchitidwa.

Powonjezera ma qubit atsopano pantchitoyi, imatha kukula mopitilira muyeso wa ntchito zomwe zimachitika ndikulowa kamodzi kokha. Ingoganizirani kuti tili ndi kachitidwe komwe tili ndi ma qubits pomwe n ndi nambala yomwe mwasankha mwachisawawa, monga tidanenera kale, qubit imasunga zidziwitso zakusunthika kwake kopingasa komanso kopingasa komanso za ma qubits onse a dongosolo, kotero ndi kusintha komwe titha kufika chitani 2 kukweza ntchito.

Kusiya mfundo zonsezi pambali pang'ono ndikuzigwiritsa ntchito, taganizirani kuti mutha kupanga kiyi ya WPA2-PSK ya siginecha yanu ya WiFi, kiyi iyi yapangidwa mwachisawawa popanda mawu enieni ndipo palibe pulogalamu padziko lapansi yomwe ingathe kuchita Kuukira kwa dikishonale kumatha kudziwa. Mwachiwonekere ndipo malinga ndi akatswiri, pogwiritsa ntchito mawu achinsinsi a 10, kompyuta yanthawi zonse imatha kutenga zaka zambiri akuchita zankhanza. Ngati kompyutayi, m'malo mokhala zida wamba, imagwiritsa ntchito kuchuluka kwa kompyuta, zimatenga masekondi angapo pakupeza yankho.

Kodi kuchuluka kwa makompyuta kumatitengera kuti?

Chowonadi ndichakuti pakadali pano palibe amene akudziwa zomwe tingayembekezere kuchokera ku ukadaulo ngati buku longa ili, ngakhale zili choncho, mwina njira yabwino kumvetsetsa komwe tili lero ndikuyesera kukambirana za nkhani zonse zomwe makampani akulu amakono ali nazo zoperekedwa m'miyezi yaposachedwa magulu a ofufuza akugwira ntchito mwakhama pakupanga ndikusintha kwa ma computum onse pa hardware ndi pulogalamu yamapulogalamu.

Malinga ndi ntchito zaposachedwa kwambiri zomwe Google wanena za zachilendo zina, pankhaniyi tikuwona kuti akuyembekeza kuti akhale kampani yomwe ili ndi kuthekera kwambiri pakompyuta yayitali kwakanthawi kochepa. Umu ndi momwe amayembekezera kuti adzafika gawo loyamba chaka chino 2017 chifukwa cha kusintha kwa D-Wave yawo, yomwe yangolandira kumene zisanu ndi chimodzi qubit chip.

Chip

Ngati tipitiliza ndi zomwe zatulutsidwa posachedwa ndi anyamata ochokera ku Google, tikupeza kuti ichi ndi gawo loyamba popeza, zikuwoneka kuti, akwanitsa kupanga njira yatsopano yopangira yomwe ingawalole, kapena ndi zomwe a John Martinis anena. ., wamkulu wa gulu lofufuzira la Google pamakompyuta a quantum, amasintha mwachangu kwambiri. Izi zimawathandiza kuti agwire ntchito masiku ano pazinthu zatsopano za pakati pa 30 ndi 50 qubits.

Mbali inayi, Google saiwala kuti ngakhale mutapeza mphamvu zingati zamagetsi, muyenera software izi zitha kukhala zogwirizana ndi ntchitoyi, chifukwa cha mtundu wa makinawa, pakadali pano sitikudziwa momwe tingapangire chilankhulo chogwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo wonse waukadaulo uwu, ngakhale pang'ono ndi pang'ono, ikukwaniritsidwa ndikuchitapo kanthu mwatsopano pamundawu zomwe zitha kukhala ndi zotsatirapo zapadera ndikugwiritsidwa ntchito pamitu monga chitetezo, kujambula kapena luntha lochita kupanga.

Kusiya Google pambali tiyenera kupitiriza kukambirana IBM, kampani yomwe mwina siyimenya nawo nkhondo ndikapita patsogolo kwake ndipo ingawoneke kuti ikuyenda 'mwa njira yawo' koma ikupita patsogolo kwambiri zikomo, mwachitsanzo, pamalingaliro opezera mitundu yonse ya opanga nawo. Ake ndiye lingaliro la pangani a Website pomwe wogwiritsa ntchito aliyense amatha kuyesa zida zawo zisanu za qubit.

Koma Microsoft, miyezi ingapo yapitayo tinali ndi chidziwitso kuti akugwirabe ntchito njira zawo zachilendo zakumvetsetsa kuchuluka kwa makompyuta, kubetcha njira ina yosiyana kwambiri ndi yomwe amatsutsana nawo mumtundu wapaderawu monga Google kapena IBM. Lingaliro lalikulu linali kugwira ntchito ndi makompyuta ochulukirapo. Kuti apange lingaliro ili, kampaniyo idalemba anthu ochita kafukufuku angapo kuti apange zomwe zimadziwika kuti qubits topological, dongosolo lomwe limakhazikitsidwa potengera kulumikizana kwa tinthu kotchedwa anyones komwe malinga ndi fizikiki kumangokhala m'mitundu iwiri.

Ndikufuna kumaliza masomphenya omwe ali nawo Intel, komwe amagwiritsira ntchito mwachindunji kugwiritsa ntchito ma silicon transistors komanso ukadaulo watsopanowu kapena ntchito yosangalatsa yomwe yakonzedwa ndikuchitika limodzi University of Bristol ndi NTT Company Kuchokera pomwe adakwanitsa kupanga pulogalamu yamajambulidwe omwe atha kukhala maziko azinthu zambiri pakompyuta. Monga tsatanetsatane, ndikuuzeni kuti malinga ndi omwe akuyang'anira, chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito chip yatsopanoyi, ntchito zomwe mpaka pano zidatenga chaka chonse zitha kuchitidwa m'maola ochepa chabe, zomwe zikuwonetsa kuchuluka kwa zovuta zomwezo makamaka mphamvu zake zozizwitsa.

Ngakhale kuti miniaturization, kukhathamiritsa kwamachitidwe ndi zina zikugwiridwabe ntchito kuti zikwaniritsidwe, chaka ndi chaka, kuti athe kusintha ndikupereka makompyuta omwe ali ndi mphamvu zambiri, chowonadi ndichakuti mtsogolo ndikubweretsa ukadaulo uwu m'mabanja onse. Zikuwonekabe ngati Google ikwanitsadi kupanga pulogalamu ya 50-qubit pofika kumapeto kwa chaka chino, ngakhale tikuyenera kuzindikira kuti makampaniwa ndi akatswiri pakupanga mawa zomwe timaganiza kuti sizingatheke lero.


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

Khalani oyamba kuyankha

Siyani ndemanga yanu

Anu email sati lofalitsidwa. Amafuna minda amalembedwa ndi *

*

*

  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
  3. Kukhazikitsa: Kuvomereza kwanu
  4. Kulumikizana kwa zomwe zafotokozedwazo: Zomwezo siziziwululidwa kwa anthu ena kupatula pakukakamizidwa mwalamulo.
  5. Zosunga: Zosungidwa ndi Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.